Wereldbank: in drie stappen richting CO2-vrije samenleving
14 mei 2015 – De transitie naar een CO2-vrije samenleving vraagt om een planning voor de lange-termijn, zo stelt de Wereldbank. In een rapport komt de bank met drie stappen voor beleidsmakers om die transitie uit te voeren.
Uit het persbericht van de Wereldbank
‘(…) Getting to zero net emissions and stabilizing climate change starts with planning for the long-term future and not stopping at short-term goals. It means getting prices right as part of a broad policy package that can trigger changes in both investments and behaviors, and it requires smoothing the transition for those most affected.
A new World Bank report walks policymakers through those three steps with data, examples and policy advice to help put countries on a path to decarbonizing their development in a smooth and orderly way. (…)’
De Wereldbank stelt dat haast is geboden en verwijst naar een recent rapport van de IPCC waarin staat dat 15 jaar vertraging leidt tot 50 procent meer kosten voor de benodigde maatregelen om de temperatuursteiging onder de twee graden te houden.
De drie stappen van de Wereldbank
Step 1: Plan for the future
By planning for the end goal rather than short-term milestones, governments can make proactive choices that lay the groundwork for future development and avoid locking in both damaging development patterns and investments that could become unusable in a carbon-constrained world. (…)
“The goal is to reach zero net emissions by 2100, not to reduce emissions at the margin in the next decades. It implies a very different set of measures, including structural and spatial transformations of our economies,” said World Bank Group Chief Economist for Climate Change Marianne Fay, a lead author of the report. (…)
Step 2: Get prices right as part of a broad policy package
On the policy front, governments can begin shifting investments and mindsets toward low-carbon growth by getting prices right as part of a broad policy package that provides incentives to ensure low-carbon growth plans are implemented and projects financed.
Putting a price on carbon though a carbon tax or cap-and-trade system addresses a market failure to incorporate the cost of environmental damage from greenhouse gas emissions. It is an efficient way to raise revenue while encouraging lower emissions, and it can be easier to administer and harder to evade than other taxes.
But while carbon pricing is necessary, it is not enough on its own without complementary policies, the authors write.
A complementary policy package that provides incentives to ensure green technologies are developed and deployed at scale can include measures such as performance standards for energy efficiency, rebates on fuel-efficient vehicles, and renewable portfolio standards that require electricity providers to get a percentage of their power from renewable sources all provide incentives for low-carbon choices.
Policymakers can also reduce tariffs on low-carbon goods, such as solar panels and energy-efficient lightbulbs, as the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation countries recently agreed to do.
Step 3: Smooth the transition
The economic transformation required to shift economies to zero net emissions before the end of the century will require public buy-in and changes in support for those most affected.
Removing fossil fuel subsidies, which primarily benefit the wealthy, and implementing carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems are two ways to free up or generate revenue that can lower costs of education, health care, and infrastructure and provide direct support for the poor while also reducing carbon emissions. (…)
The international community has an important role. The report notes that making progress on global agreements will go a “long way towards convincing economic actors that the future will be carbon neutraal.” (…)’
Uit een bericht van EurActiv
‘(…) A focus on short term objectives ending in 2030, the report’s authors argue, “would lead to emission reductions based on the cheapest options,” which may not be able to bring about complete decarbonisation by 2100.
This is clearly meant as a warning to the participants of this December’s COP 21 climate negotiations in Paris. The international climate conference will aim to arrive at a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit global warming to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. (…)’
World Bank, 11 mei 2015: 3 Steps to Decarbonizing Development for a Zero-Carbon Future
EurActiv, 13 mei 2015: World Bank advocates long term thinking on climate change
World Bank, 11 mei 2015: Decarbonising Development: Three Steps to a Zero-Carbon Future (pdf)